The visible surface of the sun is only about 6,000 degrees celsius. Just a few hundred kilometers above the visible surface, and below the solar corona, a strangely unexplainable temperature inversion layer exists about 4,000 degrees celsius. This cool layer has been found in our nearest twin like neighbor alpha centauri.
Stars are seen to form inside dense interstellar gas and dust filaments deep inside molecular clouds. Temperatures are only between 10 – 20 degrees kelvin. The cold gases clump together into higher densities deep inside molecular clouds, until stars form by condensation. The coldest regions near the center of the molecular cloud are near absolute zero, where stars very likely form by a phase change having a liquid helium core. Heat always flows from a hot to a cold object by thermodynamic law. The liquid helium core slowly evaporates, ejecting impurities throughout the normal lifetime of the star, at a stable rate determined by the magnetic field. The cool layer strange temperature minimum is part of this process. Star formation
Supernovas eject both hot and cold clumpy material, that is responsible for star formation. The cold material clumps together to form new protostars.
Observations of stars forming in extremely cold conditions, should be conclusive evidence that star formation models based on gravitational collapse and thermonuclear fusion are wrong.
|Phase change into solid hydrogen ice produces a glow around nebulas|