|Spiral structure beneath the shell of R Sculptoris (left) and the ridiculous binary star simulation (right)|
LL Pegasi is also a single star, predicted to have a binary companion because it has a similar spiral structure. It appears to lack the outer surrounding spherical shaped envelope shell in older photos, but has not yet been photographed by ALMA. In 2013 (ALMA) Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array will be fully completed, and will show full interior 3D structures.
|TT Cygni is a cool red giant carbon star, mentioned in the paper.|
All of these examples are cited in the paper to try and explain the envelopes and spiral structures as produced by an unseen undetected binary star, but the proof is entirely lacking in every case for an existing companion star.
|the old red giant star “U Camelopardalis” is a single star that has an outer shell. Its spiral envelope structure will likely be detected in 2013 when the new telescope is completed.|
Common anciently evolved red giant stars are largely responsible for filling the interstellar medium with newly ejected spiral material that will form new nebula and stars.
|Entire Free Paper version|
|Red Giant R Sculptoris (Nature paper)|