BUCKYBALLS, GRAPHENE, and CARBON NANOTUBES – COMMON ABUNDANT CARBON ATOMS have INCREDIBLE IMPLICATIONS for cosmology : The known visible matter mass fraction content of the Milky Way galaxy is 74% Hydrogen, 23% HElium, 1% Oxygen, and 0.46% Carbon. Heavier elements greatly influence astronomical phenomena. Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the Universe. The mass ratio of Hydrogen Atoms to Carbon Atoms is shockingly influential at 150 to 1 in our galaxy, considering how graphene organizes electric and magnetic fields in outer space. Astrobiology and Cosmology Implications: (1) Water becomes liquid forming clusters and beads near absolute zero temperature by contacting carbon nanotubes. (2) Graphite Dust + CO + H —> (yields) Carbon Nanotubes . (3) Graphene Nanobubbles likely fills outer space, and GRAPHENE UNDER STRAIN CREATES INCREDIBLY STRONG MAGNETIC FIELDS. (4) Electrons in vacuum move at very high speeds on GRAPHENE in ways that mimic the movements of photons. NASA’s Spitzer telescope has only just RECENTLY been able to detect these carbon molecules using NEW technology. These Carbon structures have EXTRAORDINARY PROPERTIES and are : (1) In Common Supernovae WINDS (Magnetic Fields – Bubbles). (2) Fourth most abundant element or atom in the Universe. (3) Very stable, strong, flexible, elastic, tensile, and easily formed (4) Great Electrical CONDUCTIVITY that DISSIPATES HEAT and is TRANSPARENT. The Paper states C60, C70, and Planar C24 Graphene Detections appearing as small fuzzy blobs in the Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae. Stanghellini says “the existence of these molecules does not depend on the stellar temperature, but on the strength of the WIND SHOCKS.” “Collisional shocks generated in stellar winds of planetary nebulae (supernova magnetic fields) could be responsible for fullerenes and graphenes.” BUCKYBALLS were discovered in the Magellanic Clouds in 2010, which sprung a huge rebuttal against Dark Matter Gravitational Forces for what are Electromagnetic Forces in outer space vacuums. The EM forces of these commonly abundant Carbon molecular structures in outer space, can far better and more easily explain away any illusionary fictional gravitational forces attributed to phony dark matter.
|Black Hole Laser Beams transform Graphene into BuckyballsBlack Hole LASERS form BUCKYBALLS|
|Fractal point entity Buckyballs compose spinning one dimensional single atom thick Graphene Nanotubes that thrive in the EM Fabric Vacuum of Outer Space, carrying flowing electric currents and having moving high speed electrons, that produce vast sized magnetic fields of incredible strengths.|
|Dimensionality of Carbon Atoms|
|Three dimensional covalent network structure of Diamond, Two dimensional covalent plates of graphite, One dimensional single wall tubes of carbon nanotubes, and Zero dimensional point entities of C60 Buckyballs on the millimeter scale. Between the integer 0d, 1d, 2d, and 3d, there are fractional and fractal dimensions.|
“Graphene sheets could play the role of some primordial ribosome in outer space”, states gravity dark matter scientist Crowell at Universetoday.com. “A graphene sheet or buckyball tube would attract nucleotides and preferentially pair up with the appropriate base pairs. Fullerenes might have been common on the very early earth.” Many complex metabolites are like graphene sheets and fullerone walls at the core by gluing CH(ON) rings.