Phillipp Kronberg and team states: For one component of the JET we obtain for the first time a direct determination of a Galactic-scale ELECTRIC CURRENT ~10e18 A and its direction-positive charge away from the AGN. Our analysis strongly supports a model where the jet energy flow is mainly ELECTROMAGNETIC. Since the jet travels in the positive charge direction, there must also be a direction-negative charge that is incoming to the AGN, and a magnetic field surrounding the galaxy. A discussion is ongoing at Thunderbolts Forum. Krongberg says “a sudden change in the waves alignment is an unambiguous signature of an electric current.” “Magnetic fields from the black hole core of Galaxy 3c303 are generating the current, sending it out to 150,000 light years.” It’s strength is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 amps or 10 to the power 18 amps. It reaches as far out into the IGM as the galaxy itself. Team member Lovelace’s model of a collimated current outflow and inflow is most credible. Black Holes are not required. Outer space is >99.9% plasma. This means that dark matter components should not be applied to explain galaxy shapes and great walls of galaxies aligned along cosmic sheets and filaments. The naked singularity is also mathematically possible says Hawking, but it is considered an abhorence to the big-bang theory. The naked singularity is the ultimate arch rival to the existence of black holes and dark matter. Black holes have never been directly observed, and merely have theoretical inferred postulated existence. Kronberg and Lovelace say in “Measurement of the Electric Current in a KPC-scale Jet” that “the radiated power of Galaxy 3c303 is expected to be significantly less then the jet power, because the jet power goes into a combination of pdV work on the ambient medium and the energizing ions and electrons in the outer radiating lobes. Stars are still commonly believed to be producing most of the radiation of galaxies by gravitational attraction and fusion, but the electromagnetic jet power is stronger in galaxies, and should imply there is a better model for star formation then solely gravitational attraction. Protostars have been observed to form like beads on strings along cosmic filaments. 3c303’s radiating knots are a few thousand times larger in volume then in M87. Along the jet axis there is a net flow of incoming negative charge toward the AGN core within knot E3. An equal but opposite “return current” flow inward or outward at much larger distances from the jet axis must occur, so that the net current outflow from the AGN source is zero. The toroidal magnetic field of the galaxy is responsible for collimating the jet. The polarization structure at the leading edge of each knot contains orientation changes, that appear to reflect the actual magnetic field structure of galaxy 3c303, and are not a Faraday rotation effect.
Conclusion: Galaxies are close together in the Universe, and all have supermassive black hole jets at their centers. There is a large number of galaxies within less than a million light years apart from other galaxies in the Universe. The intergalactic medium IGM is filled with electric currents and magnetic fields, that have currents that can extend out into space as far as the length of the galaxy itself. The milky way is about 250 million light years across, and is a normal sized galaxy on a collision course with Andromeda, and its satellites. Huge magnetic corona bubbles surround the milky way stretching farther then its size. About half of the mass of the universe is estimated to be in the IGM. Galaxies all have North and South Charged direction black holes like 3c303, where these charges mix with plasma dust and ionized gas to form stars along cosmic filaments, and shape galaxies and galaxy clusters into great walls and superclusters. http://masseffect.wikia.com/wiki/Talk:Dark_space