NOT ANYMORE is hypothetical Dark Energy driving the expansion of the Universe. NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer studied the separation between pairs of galaxies, and confirmed that dark energy is a smooth uniform force currently dominating over the effects of gravity. The Universe is expanding with a uniform acceleration. Dark energy is a constant force, and uniformly affecting the Universe. Logical reasoning discredits the statements by NASA, that the Universe is still undergoing a “runaway expansion” of mere 4% visible matter, because dark energy is “propelling its runaway expansion.” Mainstream Big-Bang cosmology will always blatantly misinterpret actual results. Type 1a supernovas have time dilation effects, where light bursts appear in slower motion as distances increase, which merely suggested the existence of dark energy. Highly debated is that supernovas form neutron stars, rather then quark stars that have the true ground state of matter.
The visible universe is 99% binding energy says Davies. The phony Higgs accounts for 1% quark mass. Baryons are made up of quarks. Quarks have a property called color, that is analogous to charge in electromagnetism. Just three (3N) types of charge / color interact for quarks by the nuclear force. Larger N-theories give the same results as three. Quarks and protons are spin 1/2 particles. Gluons are spin 1 particles that zip between quarks, and are carriers of the strong force that binds quarks together. Pions contain the quark-gluon sea pervading the Universe. The strong force acts between quarks. Unlike EM, weak, nuclear, and gravitational forces, the strong force does not diminish in strength with distance. After a limiting hadron size distance has been reached, the strong force remains at a steady constant strength of about 10,000 newtons, no matter how much further the distance between the quarks. The nuclear force is a second scale size residual effect of the strong force. The strong force operates inside the nucleus of baryons between quarks, beneath the surface of quark stars, and between galaxy pairs by huge magnetized bubbles, like found in our milky way, along with connecting cosmic filaments in the intergalactic medium IGM. The strong force and strange matter largely replaces gravitational forces requiring dark matter and black holes in galaxies. HYPOTHETICAL dark energy and the strong force remain a uniform constant strength no matter the distance apart BETWEEN GALAXY PAIRS, and between Up Down PAIRS of QUARKS inside the nucleus ! They could be ANALOGOUS Forces, like Gravity and Electromagnetism. The big-bang theory predicted that most of the mass of the universe is in cosmic filaments. WHIM filaments are believed likely to contain half the mass of the universe. The charged particles and forces in outer space, associated with all filaments, is grossly neglected, resulting still today in a dogmatic big-bang gravity model of the Universe. The patriot of prediction Hannes Alfven was first to predict that outer space was filled with filamentary plasma structures.