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Plasma Astrophysics Applications by David Stern from NASA for a Gravito-ElectroMagnetic Universe

Gravito-Electromagnetic Frame-Dragging Effect warps spacetime. The distinction between gravito-magnetism and gravito-electricity is FRAME DEPENDENT, just like its counterpart in Maxwell's theory.

Einstein attempted to construct a unified field theory in which electromagnetism and gravity would emerge as different aspects of a single fundamental field.  Gravity IS a byproduct of the electromagnetic force, a pseudo-force.

Gravity Probe B confirms Gravitomagnetism

Gravity Probe B – NASA states “the field equations of gravito-electromagnetism interpret the predictions of the full theory of general relativity for massive spinning bodies, just as Maxwell’s equations govern the behavior of electric dipoles in an external magnetic field.  Earth’s gravito-electric field lines are radial, and earth’s gravito-magnetic field lines are dipolar.”  Observers using different location coordinates, observe differences in the sizes of the effects. The solar wind is radial, ending at the heliosphere’s termination shock, which is near the bow shock that Voyager encountered in 2007. These effects are far greater with the sun, then the earth.

Kip Thorne says "In the realm of black holes and the Universe, these effects rule."

Electromagnetic waves could exist in empty space. Those waves spread in 3 dimensions like sound, except the EM wave contains variable electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

Particles found in space carry an electric charge, and a moving electric charge can be viewed as equivalent to an electric current. Magnetic forces try to make plasma “Co-rotate” with the earth. Their effect is the same, as if magnetic field lines which thread the plasma are viewed as attached to it, so that the earth, plasma, and attached field lines rotate together. This only happens where plasma exists to conduct electricity. Earth’s atmosphere is an insulator from outer space. In principle, the same electric current generation which exists between Jupiter and Io, can exist with other moons.

Under certain conditions, a varying electric field can also carry an electric current, through empty space.  An electric current can flow through empty space between the plates of a capacitor device that stores electric charge.  A charged capacitor stores electric energy, and an inductor with current flowing through it stores magnetic energy.

Earth’s magnetic field has two “holes” around the magnetic poles, whose magnetic field lines go very far from earth and afford an easy connection to the solar wind and to the interplanetary plasma phenomena. The solar wind begins at the sun’s corona, which proves that the earth and sun have magnetic field connections.

Electric currents flow easiest along field lines in a plasma, as do particles, heat, and certain types of waves. In outer space, the entire plasma is moved sideways, perpendicular to both magnetic and electric field lines.

Electric currents often flow in space without any voltage driving them. No electric field is involved, because the magnetic field is doing it all, when it has the appropriate structure. The electric field moves both protons and electrons in the same direction with the same velocity of both motions. The result is always sideways flow of the plasma, a bulk flow motion of the gas. When some powerful cause “pushes” plasma to move in some direction, an electric field helps achieve this. The positive and negative charges creating such a field need only a relatively small number of electrons to be moved to new positions. The motion of plasma — is changing the magnetic field line structure — that is associated with an electric field, such as the solar wind. Where can such electric fields come from? FROM FAR OUT IN OUTER SPACE!

Electric phenomena tend to spread out in outer space, where every point can have its own voltage. The 3-dimensional voltage distribution is the electric field.  In 1861 Maxwell proposed the “Displacement Current” that fills all of space, so that an electric current can travel through empty space, but only for very fast oscillations — Light from stars! 

An electron at rest relative to you seems to create an electric force. If you start moving, the electron is observed to be moving relatively to you, and a moving charge acts like an electric current, creating a magnetic field.  What you observe depends on your motion! In Relativity theory, electric and magnetic fields are aspects of the same field, which may appear differently in different frames of reference. Electric fields in space are associated with ANY streaming of plasma through a magnetic field.  Electric fields drive through and BEND magnetic fields.  The solar wind pushes away the galaxy’s magnetic field that exists outside the heliopause.

An electron could be the smallest known possible magnet, that is magnetized along its rotation axis, having a magnetic moment.  The laws of physics change in this realm of “quantum gravity.” Protons and neutrons are both more weakly magnetized.

Magnetic field lines never start nor end.



degreed scientist research writer blogger

5 responses »

  1. Janet DiDonato

    Hey, what’s up with this. Shouldn’t you be the one getting credit for this:

    SYDNEY (AFP) – A 22-year-old Australian university student has solved a problem which has puzzled astrophysicists for decades, discovering part of the so-called “missing mass” of the universe during her summer break.

    Undergraduate Amelia Fraser-McKelvie made the breakthrough during a holiday internship with a team at Monash University’s School of Physics, locating the mystery material within vast structures called “filaments of galaxies”.

    Monash astrophysicist Dr Kevin Pimbblet explained that scientists had previously detected matter that was present in the early history of the universe but that could not now be located.

    “There is missing mass, ordinary mass not dark mass … It’s missing to the present day,” Pimbblet told AFP.

    “We don’t know where it went. Now we do know where it went because that’s what Amelia found.”

    Fraser-McKelvie, an aerospace engineering and science student, was able to confirm after a targeted X-ray search for the mystery mass that it had moved to the “filaments of galaxies”, which stretch across enormous expanses of space.

    • Pimbblet detected some x-rays in outer space, and confirmed that they belong to filaments of the WHIM. This is Major for Plasma Cosmology. Big-Bang Astrophysics had predicted that the majority of mass of the Universe is IN filaments to explain cosmic structures ! Their “missing mass” has not been found now, just some unknown amount of mass has been found by Pimbblet in a large filamentary region previously not identified nor even known to exist. Last year Taotao Fang found some “missing mass” of the universe, too. It didn’t have much of all consideration, but Hannes Alfven predicted in 1963 that the Universe was actually filled with hot filamentary structured plasma. Half of mass of the universe could be in WHIM filaments alone, even states Pimbblet. They fill the space of the IGM and connect together galaxies, much like tributaries of streams flowing plasma into the Oceans. I’ve written an entire story with photos on my website. Thanks kindly for leaving a comment.

      • Janet DiDonato

        So sorry I’ve taken this long to reply, but I thought I’d get a message in my E-mail. You have no idea how fascinating this is to me, and how I wish I had a better grounding in mathematics:

        On the science channel last night, a guy who has been trying to get photographic proof of black holes, claims he has photographed various stars orbiting a black hole that (I believe) is one million times the mass of our sun. He claims it is valid because the “object” around which these bodies are moving (at various speeds, the fastest of which is one rotation every 15 years, I believe), is not an “object” at all — as it does not appear in the photograph.

        I hope this makes sense. In other words, these bodies appear to be revolving around nothing. He claims this is the first photographic evidence of the existence of black holes. Also, it is claimed that there is a huge one in the center of our own galaxy. Please excuse me if this has already been covered on your site — which I am returning to as soon as I send this off to you. I am trying my best to take this all in, and most appreciate your answer above.

        Regards, Janet

      • Janet DiDonato

        Sorry, I meant to provide this website, and wonder if, in any way, it has any application to the work you are doing. It is way too technical for me (i.e., the math) to determine such application, but found it most interesting that he is postulating a unification theory in a very inclusive sort of way; that is, nature in its entirety (if I understand it correctly):

      • the Universe is filamentary out to at least 12 billion light years. The author describes 10 size scales, the largest being a filamentary cellular organism. This is possible, and it would have a long life span and extreme slow motions relative to us being much smaller. Hannes Alfven has proposed over 13 known plasma scales. Robert Oldershaw says that atoms, stars, and galaxies are a fractal self-similar hierarchy in the universe. He wrote me saying that our galaxy is an analogue of a sub-atomic nucleus. Only if an object is entirely self-similar, will it have every element of the other, and have true size-invariant analogs. These fractal structures would be the same, no matter their sizes. He teaches at a university, and wrote me that our sun is analogous with an lithium atom. Unfortunately, like the giant shaking his head when its snowing, nature and reality can’t seem to always apply exactly the same way everytime. Appearances alone usually do not lead to entirely self-similar structures. I think it would be cool, if stars were giant atoms, or galaxies were quarks inside an atomic nucleus of larger atoms etc However, even atoms are extremely transitory, and are not stable and long lasting as we were taught in grade school. Thanks so much for subscribing, please let me know about a new story of great interest, that you would like for me to write about and publish, and have a discussion.

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