Einstein attempted to construct a unified field theory in which electromagnetism and gravity would emerge as different aspects of a single fundamental field. Gravity IS a byproduct of the electromagnetic force, a pseudo-force.
Gravity Probe B – NASA states “the field equations of gravito-electromagnetism interpret the predictions of the full theory of general relativity for massive spinning bodies, just as Maxwell’s equations govern the behavior of electric dipoles in an external magnetic field. Earth’s gravito-electric field lines are radial, and earth’s gravito-magnetic field lines are dipolar.” Observers using different location coordinates, observe differences in the sizes of the effects. The solar wind is radial, ending at the heliosphere’s termination shock, which is near the bow shock that Voyager encountered in 2007. These effects are far greater with the sun, then the earth.
Electromagnetic waves could exist in empty space. Those waves spread in 3 dimensions like sound, except the EM wave contains variable electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
Particles found in space carry an electric charge, and a moving electric charge can be viewed as equivalent to an electric current. Magnetic forces try to make plasma “Co-rotate” with the earth. Their effect is the same, as if magnetic field lines which thread the plasma are viewed as attached to it, so that the earth, plasma, and attached field lines rotate together. This only happens where plasma exists to conduct electricity. Earth’s atmosphere is an insulator from outer space. In principle, the same electric current generation which exists between Jupiter and Io, can exist with other moons.
Under certain conditions, a varying electric field can also carry an electric current, through empty space. An electric current can flow through empty space between the plates of a capacitor device that stores electric charge. A charged capacitor stores electric energy, and an inductor with current flowing through it stores magnetic energy.
Earth’s magnetic field has two “holes” around the magnetic poles, whose magnetic field lines go very far from earth and afford an easy connection to the solar wind and to the interplanetary plasma phenomena. The solar wind begins at the sun’s corona, which proves that the earth and sun have magnetic field connections.
Electric currents flow easiest along field lines in a plasma, as do particles, heat, and certain types of waves. In outer space, the entire plasma is moved sideways, perpendicular to both magnetic and electric field lines.
Electric phenomena tend to spread out in outer space, where every point can have its own voltage. The 3-dimensional voltage distribution is the electric field. In 1861 Maxwell proposed the “Displacement Current” that fills all of space, so that an electric current can travel through empty space, but only for very fast oscillations — Light from stars!
An electron at rest relative to you seems to create an electric force. If you start moving, the electron is observed to be moving relatively to you, and a moving charge acts like an electric current, creating a magnetic field. What you observe depends on your motion! In Relativity theory, electric and magnetic fields are aspects of the same field, which may appear differently in different frames of reference. Electric fields in space are associated with ANY streaming of plasma through a magnetic field. Electric fields drive through and BEND magnetic fields. The solar wind pushes away the galaxy’s magnetic field that exists outside the heliopause.
An electron could be the smallest known possible magnet, that is magnetized along its rotation axis, having a magnetic moment. The laws of physics change in this realm of “quantum gravity.” Protons and neutrons are both more weakly magnetized.
Magnetic field lines never start nor end.